Goal-line technology (GLT) how it’s work ?

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If you look at all various walks of life, technology always has solutions and treatments for every problem or thing that happens, especially if it happened suddenly, and in the field of sports technology has contributed significantly in the progress and development of some sports, especially in individual sports such as: tennis game, table and throw Spear, and other from individual sports. As for football the most popular game, we found that the introduction of some of the tools and techniques in its field has found some disregard or lack of acceptance by the organizers of the game (FIFA), and Despite many objections to the lack of technical intervention in The path of the game, But those who finally agreed to the actually status, and introduced some of the technology that proved over the days that it was too late, and had to be entered from a long time. 

Now and with nearing of the world cup event that is prepared over four years that is consider the biggest international performance, to bring 32 teams together and millions of fans. The technology will be so powerful that it will be an important factor in deciding on some of the decisions that make football fans always divided.

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We will discuss the techniques that you can see as a football fan on the pitch and around the stadium, and the beginning will be with the techniques for determining the crossing of the ball for the goal line or not.

History

 The discussion over the legitimacy of the goals or not in the various football Championships has been going on for a long time, beginning with the 1966 World Cup, and specifically in the final that combined the teams of West Germany and England, and after the original time with a equality of two goals each, English Jeff Hirst in the 11th minute from additional time score a goal that remains discussion topic until now. But the referee of the game after consultation with the referee of the flag decide it a valid goal under which England was able to win its only cup so far in the World Cup.

The Germans won their revenge in the 2010 World Cup final when England’s Frank Lampard shoot  a strong ball hit the bar before crossing the goal line about a meter away, but none of the referees watched the shot before German goalkeeper Manuel Noir take the ball away by his hand Without the goal being calculated.

 

On the right hand side of the picture, English player Frank Lampard complain that the goal was not counted, left of the image goalkeeper Manuel Noir trying to block the ball.
On the right hand side of the picture, English player Frank Lampard complain that the goal was not counted, left of the image goalkeeper Manuel Noir trying to block the ball.

 

After this certain incident, the FIFA found that it was time to use technology in football to avoid these thorny situations. Among the eight sports technology companies that participated in the first round of tests, a number of techniques were used:

Hawk-Eye Technology
Hawk Eye Technology Used in Tennis Courts
Hawk Eye Technology Used in Tennis Courts

 

For those who follow the World Tennis Championships, Hawk-Eye statement will not be a stranger to it, so the developer company this technique take it  to apply it to football stadiums because the principle of its work is not very different from what is done on tennis courts.

 

The Hawk-Eye concept was born in 1999 as ideas from Professor Paul Hawkins, who devised a way to use cameras designed specifically to improve decision-making accuracy by game officials, was first used as a decision-making tool in cricket game.

 

In football, you know this by the Goal-line Technology, which is used to determine the entry of the ball in its completely perimeter in the goal line or not, with the help of electronic devices, where help the referee of the game to determine the legitimacy of the goal or not, it sends an alert to the main referee Wristwatch in the case The ball passed the goal line.

 

How the GLT technology works

 

14 high-speed cameras are installed at high positions across the football stadium at the top, directed at the goal, with 7 cameras per goal tracking the ball on the pitch. The position of the ball is continuously captured by dividing the position of the ball into three dimensions X / Y / Z coordinates.

 

An expressive picture showing how the GLT technology works, the location of the cameras at the top of the football field, 7 cameras for a every goal
An expressive picture showing how the GLT technology works, the location of the cameras at the top of the football field, 7 cameras for a every goal

 

For example, triangulation is a geometrical method for calculating the distance and position to an unknown point, respectively, with the help of two known points. As the name hint, the system forms triangles between these three points, and uses the angles between them to determine the position third unknown. The system program then creates a three-dimensional picture of the ball for the line

 

This technique can produce safe results even when some cameras are darken by players’ bodies; only three are required to perform triangulation and create a picture. Therefore, even if some cameras are disabled, other cameras can display the image accurately.

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The program calculates the location of the ball in each frame by identifying the pixels that match to the ball. You can get a better view of how these cameras are accurate, even if the ball has been kicked in the air at 120 km / h.

The decision of the legality of the goal is taken or not, through the Wristwatch in the hands of the referee, the goal is displayed in less than a second, during which the referee can make the decision even if he or she has not seen the ball well because of the overlap of the players’ bodies.

The Wristwatch with the main referee for the notice of the legality of the goal or not
The Wristwatch with the main referee for the notice of the legality of the goal or not

 

Goal Ref

Infographic shows how Goal Ref works
Infographic shows how Goal Ref works

The technique uses a negative electronic circuit in the ball, which raises a low-frequency magnetic field covering the goal completely while the ball slides into it. The electronic circuit consists of three copper Solenoid in a connected group between the heart of the ball and the surface plate.

 

 

Antennas that generate this magnetic field are installed on the bar and parallel goal bars. Once the ball passes the line, the antennas sense a change in their magnetic fields and transfer the data to the computer, which determines whether the ball has exceeded the line or not . If the line is exceeded, an alert indicating a goal is sent to the referee within half a second.

 

Cairos GLT system

 

Cairos GLTS technology - right of the image shows the three goal bars where the sensors are located, left of the image ball developed by Adidas
Cairos GLTS technology – right of the image shows the three goal bars where the sensors are located, left of the image ball developed by Adidas

 

This technology was developed by Cairos Technologies AG, in partnership with Adidas Sports Equipment, by generating a magnetic sphere to track a ball through an electronic sensor that is attached to the ball. Thin wires that carry electricity are buried around the penalty area, and behind the goal line to form a network, Adidas designed a specifically ball that can not only fixing sensitive sensor inside, but also bear the strong kicks by the players without any damage.

 

The moving ball affects the unified magnetic field because of the Interference between the copper wires and the magnetic field. The ripple moves over the network to the computer, which determines whether the ball is crossed the line or not, and sends an immediate alarm to the clock in the judgment wrist. However, there were doubts about the accuracy and speed of their results, and they are used in a limited way in some European Championships.

 

This is a video of the most controversial shots, the GLT technology has played a big role in determining the validity of the goal or not:

 

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